Africa’s history

Defining dates in African history, 5000 B.C-2000 A.D

5000 B.C The people of northern Africa began practicing farming.

4000 The vast area stretching across northern Africa and down to central Africa began drying up, turning into what is today the Sahara desert.

3100 Upper and lower Egypt were united by King Menes to become Egypt of antiquity, one of the greatest of world civilizations. Menes also founded the first Egyptian dynasty.

2686 Construction work on the pyramids and the Great Sphinx of Egypt began.

2650 The first great pyramid, called the Step Pyramid, was built for the king Zoser and it stood at about 60 metres high.

3000 The Third Pharaoh of the First Egyptian Dynasty conquered the Nubian people of the Upper Sudan area. The future Kushite empire grew out of this conquest.

2000 To the south of Egypt, the kingdom of Kush began to rise to greatness.

1991 King Amenemhet founded Dynasty XII, a dynasty that would greatly increase the power of the already increasingly powerful kingdom of Egypt.

1670 Immigrant leaders known as Hyskos rulers, founded a dynasty that would rule Egypt for 100 years.

1490 A new king named Thutmose III ascended the Egyptian throne. Under his reign, which lasted until 1436, Egypt reached the peak of its power, greatness, and splendor. At an almost yearly interval for 20 years, Thutmose led military invasions into the southwestern Asian territories of Syria and Palestine and annexed them to the Egyptian empire.

1367 Amenhotep IV came to the throne, changed his name to Akhenaton, and changed Egypt’s history in a dramatic way. He was a worshipper of the a sun god called Aton, represented as the disk of the sun. He urged Egyptians to worship Aton, and moved the capital to a new city called Akhetaton, about 280 kilometres north of the city of Thebes. The arts flourished during his reign.

1070 The Dynasty XX of Egypt came to an end, and with it began the decline of Egypt as a great nation as power struggles between priests and royals divided Egypt into small, weak states.